I am not diving into the detailed analysis of the Google Algorithms here as you can find hundreds of sites to understand Google Algorithms and its updates thoroughly like the one explained by Neil Patel and Search Engine Land. All I need is to give you a quick idea of all the major algorithms Google has released in the form of an infographic. You can understand and analyze these algorithms to rank higher on Google.

Infographic explaining the major Google algorithms updates namely Panda, Penguin, Pirate, Hummingbird, Pigeon, Mobile, Rankbrain, Possum, and Fred.
Google Algorithm Updates